The three main capital market instruments are bonds, stocks & mortgages. Bonds represent borrowing by the issuing firm. Mortgages are long-term loands secured by real property. Only corporations can issue stock. Corporations & governments can issue bonds. In any given year, for mode funds are raised with bonds than with stock. Also, bond indentures contain many provisions that make them more or less attractive to investors, such as a call option, convertibility or a sinking fund.
call option: şirketin belirli bir extra premium vererek bondu geri alma opsiyonu..
convertibility: bondun nakite ya da share a çevrilme ozelliği, değeri..
sinking fund: borclulugu azaltmak ve borclunun likit alarak faaliyetine devam etmesini sağlamak için kurulmus bir fon
source: fundamentals of financial management