20 Mayıs 2013 Pazartesi

Gamification course handnotes


Gamification is the use of game elements & game design techniques in non game contexts.
Ex:
-          Nike + : running challenge, measurement => it makes the experience more fun
-          Samsung nation leaderboard
Game elements: a toolbox to build service
-          Points
-          Resource collection
-          Quests
-          Avatars
-          Social graph
-          Progression & Levels
-          Badges & Achievements
Game design techniques: story design => designing the whole experience rather than solely giving high graphical success: it’s the architecture of experience via using elements, graphics etc..
Non game contexts: Some objective other than success in the game => business, school, etc. Everything

Why study gamification:
Games are powerfull things that attracts people and give them exorbust experience which also have lessons from psychology, design, strategy…
Examples & categories:
Gamification can be used in:
-          External: marketing, sales, customer engagement (in organization)
-          Internal: Hr, productivity enhancements, crowdsourcing (in products/services)
-          Behavior change: Health & wellness, sustainability, personal finance (motivating)
E.g.:
 in Windows IT department: 7 language quality game (internal)
Fun theory: speed limit enforcement  etc…
·         Wittgenstein: “For how is the concept of a game bounded? What still count as a game & what no longer does? Can you give boundry? No.”
·         Bernard Smits: “the 3 process:
Pre-lusory goal
Constitutive rule
Lusory attitude
·         J.Huizinga: Oyun içinde gerçek hayat kuralları kaybolur. The magic circle
·         Play:
o   “Play is the aimless expenditure of exuberent energy” Friedrich Schiller
o   “Play is whatever is done spontaneously & for its own sake” George Santayona
o   “Play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age” Lev Vygotsky
o   “Play is free movement within a mere rigid structure.” Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman
circle is the rules frame: you can do whatever you want within the rules




Games:
“A game is a closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict & resolves in an unequal outcome.” Tracy Fullerton, Chris Swain & Steven Hoffman
“A game is a series of meaningful choices.” Sid Meier
“A game is a … domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes” Thomas Mallaby
“A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude.” Jesse Schell
 









-          Feel a freedom within the choices in a continuous environment
Takeaways for Gamification
-          Voluntariness (Who ever must play; cannot play)
-          Learning or problem solving
-          Balance of structure and exploration
Steam içine kupon koyabilmek??
Some game statistics:
·         %44 of US/UK adults have played mobile games.
·         %97 of kids 12-17 play video games
·         The average game player is 30 years old.
·         %47 percent of all game players are women.
Sandbox: minecraft
Building: civilization, simcity (have actions create results in system)
Social Building: The sims, farmville
MMOGs: WoW
Puzzle: Portal 2, Angry Birds

Why games?
·         E-business 2.0 => analytics, cloud, mobile etc
·         Social Networks & media embededness
·         Loyalty programs (2 billion loyalty reward programs memberships, 50 billion dolars of rewards outstanding in US)
·         Management & marketing research
Realty=>gets=>games
-          America’s Army Game (recruiting soldier)
-          “Play Money”Julian Dibbel book: WoW game Money selling (400k peope in China living with it)
Real World Activity                                                //            Game Concept
1.       Monthly sales competition                        Challenge
2.       Frequent flyer program tiers                    Levels
3.       Weight Watchers group                              Team
4.       Free coffee after 10 purch                         Reward
5.       Amex platinium card                                    Badge

Why gamification is beneficial?
-          Dodgeball: check-in (4sq)
İnsanları içeri çekmeli (critical mass) ki belirli yoğunluğa ulaşılarak kullanım verimliliği artsın.
Dodgeball’ın eksikleri:
-          Engagement gap
-          Choices
-          Progression (yaptıklarımla bir yere varamıyorum.. Motivation eksik)
-          Social interaction (collaborate, compete, see what’re they doing)
-          Habit
Foursquare: mayorship badges: birader, kanka, kafa …

Thinking like a game designer:
Your participants as players:
(customers, employees, community, target population)
-          Players are the counter of a game
-          Players feel a sense of autonomy/control (they can make meaningful choices that can make results accordingly)
-          Players play (the freedom that they are like to feel @ play)
Goal: set your players playing /and keep them playing

Design Rules
The player Journey:
1.       On boarding (giriş)
a.       Guides
b.      Highlighting
c.       Feedback
d.      Limited options(herşeyi yapamıypr, belli level ‘a kadar ilerleyebiliyorsun)
e.      Limited masters
f.        Impossible to fail (easy) => kolayca birşeyi başarıp, eğitmek
Oyunu tanıtan, kolayca: reward vererek oyuna çeken; ilgi çekici bölüm

2.       Scaffolding (gelişme)
3.       Pathways to mastery (sonuç)


BALANCE:
Too many           x             Few       (choices)
Hard                      x             Easy       (difficulty)
“                             x             “              (Money gaining), (buying), (rewarding)
Create an Experince: (+ fun, engagement)
Turntable.com =>           - Listening music (Meaningful experience without really changing)

Tapping Emotions:          What makes engaging?
ð  FUN
“ In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun. You find the fun & shop! The job’s a game.” Mary Poppins
-          C. Jungs schema
Categories of funs:
-Winning, Problem-solving, Exploring, Chilling-out, Teamwork, Recognition, Triumphing, Collecting, Suprise, Sharing, Role-playing, Customization, Goofing-off
Understanding fun:
Nicole Lizarro’s 4 keys:
1.       Easy fun (casual, nice, easy…)
2.       Hard fun (problem solving, challenges, mastery…)
3.       People fun (with teamwork, collaboration, socializing,… )
4.       Serious fun (doing things meaningful, goof for community…)
Marc Leblanc’s 8 kinds of Fun
1.       Sensation
2.       Fantasy
3.       Narrative
4.       Challenge
5.       Fellowship
6.       Discovery
7.       Expression
8.       Submission (causal time)
Book: Raph Koster: “a theory of fun”
Takeaway:
1.       Fun can be designed
2.       Fun can be challenging
3.       Appeal to different kinds of fun
Finding Fun
VW: thefuntheory.com
Linkedin profile details=> completeness level
İt gives Feedback/ Progression/ Completation
Gamification: is finding fun in non-game thing by putting (using) small elements of fun.
Breaking Games Down
Game Elements:
The elements of tic tac toe
-          The board/ The tokens/ Two players/ Competitive/ Turn based/ Win&draw states/ No progressin or scoring
* Experiences => GAMES <= Elements
The Pyramid of Elements:
Dynamics> Mechanics> Components
-          Her oyunda olması gerekmez. Aynı sırada olması gerekmez. Genel başarılı şemayı belirtir.
Dynamics: Big Picture aspects “grammar”
1.       Constraints
2.       Emotions
3.       Narrative
4.       Progression
5.       Relationships
Mechanics: Processes that drive action forward: “verbs”
1.       Challenges
2.       Chance
3.       Competition
4.       Cooperation
5.       Feed-back
6.       Resource acquisiton
7.       Rewards
8.       Transactions
9.       Turns
10.   Win states
Components: Specific examples of mechanics & Dynamics: “nouns”
1.       Achievement
2.       Avatars
3.       Badges
4.       Boss fights
5.       Collections
6.       Combat
7.       Content unlocking
8.       Gifting
9.       Leaderboards
10.   Levels
11.   Points
12.   Quests
13.   Social graph
14.   Teams
15.   Virtual goods
Lessons from the Pyramid
A variety of options/ Lower levels tend to implement one or more higher-level concepts

The PBL Triad
1.       Points: Keep score/ Determine win states/ Connect to rewards/ Provide feedback/ Display of progress/ Data fort he game designer/ Fungible
2.       Badges: Representations of achievements/ Flexibility(reward flexibility)/ Style(design gives aesthetic..)/ Signaling the importance of the gamified service (redentials: i’ve done all) badge framework: openbadges.org wiki.mozilla.org/badges
3.       Leaderboards:
-          Ranking: Feedback on competition
-          Personalized leaderboards: friend relative variant
Limitations of Elements
-          The elements are NOT the game
-          NOT all rewards are fun; NOT all fun is rewarding
-          Cookie cutter
·         Motivative & meaningful:
o   Meaningful choices
o   Puzzles
o   Mastery
o   Community
o   Different kinds of users
People growing with video games:
They already gonna be comfortable with gamification principles: designs.
-          Future: usage of students
-          Competitive advantage: things going up to digital, so games is a booster of learning, communicating, joining, adapting new Things.
XEO Design Research:
Criteria:
1.       What players like most about playing?
2.       Creates unique emotion without story
3.       Already present ultra popular games
4.       Supported by psychology theory & other larget study
Hard Fun: (emotions from meaningful challenges, strategies, puzzles)
-          Playing to see how good i’am
-          Playing to beat the game
-          Having multiple objectives
-          Requiring strategy rather than luck
Challenges=> choice of strategies + collaboration + competitiveness
Easy Fun: Exploratiın, excitement & adventure
Altered States: How a game makes them feel inside
-          Clearing my mind by clearing a level
-          Avoiding boredom
-          Feeling better about myself
People Factor:
-          It’s the people that are addictive not the game
-          I don’t play but it’s fun to watch
-          It’s fun to spend time with friends.
Emotions During Play
Fear
Threat of harm object moving quickly to hit player, sudden fal lor loss of support, possibility of pain
Suprise
Sudden change => duygu değişim anları
Disgust
Rejection of outside norms. (symbol triggers: vomit, urine, blood…)
Naches/ Kvell
Pleasure or pride at the accomplishment of a child or mentee.
Fiero
Personal triumph over adversity. The ultimate game emotion: overcoming difficult obstacles
Schadenfreunde
Gloat over misfortune of a rival
Wonder
Overwhelming improbability




Gamification as motivational design
Motivation: Driving force => i liked it, someone told me to, rewarding bonuses, other rewards…
The behaviorism:
Behaviorè Consequences: positive/negative (operant conditioning)
èinfluencing via stimulus (classical conditioning)
Behavioral Economics
-          People make mistakes consistently
-          Loss aversion (Losses >gains)
-          Power of defaults
-          Confirmation bias
Leanings from behaviorism
=>> Observation /feed-back loops /reinforcement
·         Watch: observe what people do with these games (conditions)
Dopamine system: pleasure & learning in response to feel suprising, rewarding, valuable

Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Rewards:
-          Tangible/ intangible
-          Expected/ unexpected
-          Contingency:
o   Task non-contingent
o   Engagement contingent
o   Completation contingent
o   Performance contingent
e.g.: Samsung Nation “Cruise Badge” (intangible, unexpected, engagement-contingent badge)

Reward Schedules:
-          Continuous
-          Fixed Ratio
-          Fixed Interval
-          Variable
o   Competitive/ Noncomp.
o   Metin Kutusu: TimeCertain/ Uncertain
e.g.:
Merit badge => fixed ratio
Slot Machine: gives coins => variable schedule, reward machine
 

Potential Abuse (manipulation => randomness)
Hedonic Treadmill experiment
-          Grapejuice, tone, dopamine
Metin Kutusu: 2 sec(ödülü almaktansa, anticipation bizi mutlu ediyor.)
 

Overemphasis on Status
Cognitivism: Intrinsic /Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic rewards=> inside driving happiness
Extrinsic rewards=> fame, fortune, someone told to do, Money etc…
1.       Status: saygı duyulan olmak, vs
2.       Access: level kazanarak tüm araçlara erişebilirlik sağlamak
3.       Power: güçlü olmak
4.       Stuff: getting some stuff: eşyalar kazanmak, koleksiyon yapmak
-          Badges may be it’s just fun, enjoyable pattern..
How rewards can de-motivate?
-          İntrinsic motivation’u extrinsic yapar. (overjustification effect)
-          İnteresting: enjoyable tasks…
 








Self Determination Theory
Metin Kutusu: Quests, Rewards purposeMetin Kutusu: Customization elementMetin Kutusu: -Solving problem  -AchievingMetin Kutusu: -Your activity is connected with a purposeMetin Kutusu: -Person’ve control       -Meaningful ChoicesCompetence                                                    Autonomy                                                         Relatedness




Reference book: Daniel H. Pink “Drive”

Design Thinking => user experience
Design:
·         Purposive (has to be a goal)
·         Human-centered (design around people: the experience) =solutions for people
·         Balance of analytical & creative
o   Abductive reasoning: inference from best available exploration.
·         Iterative (prototyping & playtesting)

Gamification Design Framework “the 6D”
1.       Define your business objectives
2.       Delineate target behaviors
3.       Describe your players
4.       Devise activity loops
5.       Don’t forget the fun!
6.       Deploy the appropriate tools

Objectives & Behaviors
1.       Business Obj.: ultimate goals
4square: - social sharing ability/ -Coupon rewarding …
How to achive: -List & rank possible objectives / -eliminate means to ends / -justify objectives
2.       Target behaviors:
Specific/ Success Metrics (“win states”; what are the decision points?),
Analytics (DAU/MAU –daily/monthly avg. Users-, Virality, Volume of Activity)
Describe Players: (Richard Bartle) Motivational Types










Engagement Leap:
                               Motivation
                                                                             
                                                                              Action
 

                               Feed-back
 

Metin Kutusu: Time loopsProgression Loops
 

Daha büyük parçaları birleştiren küçük parçalar…
e.g. : Samsung nation: exciting new social loyalty program., Fitocracy: funny exercicing
the PBL tool is not enough => FUN is important /reinforce FUN.
Tools:



Taking Stock
Two approaches to gamification
Metin Kutusu:   DOING
- Marketing & economics
- Incentives
- Satisfying needs
- Game elements (inductive)
- Status
- PBLs
- Rewards
- Making user do things
Metin Kutusu: FEELING
- Game design & cognitive psychology
- Experiences
- Fun
- Game thinking (deductive)
- Meaning
- Puzzles
- Progression
- Making players  awesone
 








Is Gamification is right for me?
1.       Motivation:
Where would you derive value from encouraging behavior?
a.       Emotional connections, unique skills, creativity or teamwork
b.      To make boring tasks interesting
2.       Meaningful Choices:
Are your target activities sufficiently interesting?
a.       Structure: must be able to encode in rules or algorithms, points for twitter sharing v. Product registration
b.      Conflicts: designing for happines (psychology: Martin Seligman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)
P ositive emotions
E ngagement
R elationship
M eaning
A chievement   in games (the book: “Flourish”)
3.       Structure:
Can the desired behaviors be modeled through algorithms?
4.       Potential Conflicts:    Can the game avoid tension with other motivational causes?

Conditions for Flow
·         Clear goals
·         Balance between perceived challenges
& perceived skills.
·         Clear & immediate feed-back


Social Engagement Verbs & Actions


















-          Mapping out the actions & interpret who’s participate etc…

Zero-sum games:
-          Head- to-head battles
-          War simutations
-          Rank-ordered competitions
-          Gambling

Game: a structured experience with rules & goals that’s fun to play ( Sims, Ultima O., Rock Band …)

Non-zero-sum games: We’re partners:
-          Party games
-          Charity walks
-          Playground…

What’s your player journey?
-          Differentiate by layers: newbie, regular, expert…

“Internal Applications”
1.       Intranet engagement
a.       SAP community network
2.       Productivity enhancement: Motivation rises
a.       For call centers:
                                                               i.      Profile
                                                             ii.      Leaderboard
                                                            iii.      Level
                                                           iv.      Achievements
                                                             v.      Customer Satisfaction
3.       Add KPIs (Key Performance Indicatiors)
4.       Efficiency Enhancement
a.       Answering e-mail more efficiently
5.       Knowledge Management
a.       Deloitte WhoWhatWhere
6.       Human Resource
a.       Hiring
b.      Onboarding
c.       Acculturation
d.      Corporate Training
e.      Performance Review
f.        Employee Recognition
g.       T & E
7.       Innovation
a.       Idea market place: to come with ideas (stockmarket)
8.       Serious games
a.       Training: for managing manufacturing plant (Siemens)
9.       Workplace Motivations
a.       Rewards: Pay/ Bonuses/ Stock Options/ Praise/ Promotions/ Responsibility
                                                               i.      All of them are extrinsic motivations
10.   Skill Development (intrinsic)
a.       Problem solving, engaging
                                                               i.      Points/ Badges/ Leaderboards …
                                                             ii.      Learn & be effective
11.   Information (intrinsic)
a.       Garsonların satışlarına göre not veriyor. (Puan + leaderboard üzerinde = feedback) (X yemeği: +A, potential extra tips…)
12.   Corporate Citizenship:
a.       FUN: environment, teamwork
b.      Zappified courface
                                                               i.      Facepicture, co-workers…
13.   GAME X JOB
a.       Saatte 20 call yapma = 10 pts
b.      Customer satisfaction: müşterinin araması; teşekkürü = 100 pts
c.       Customer streak: 2x200 pts
14.   Neye önem vererek yapılmasını istiyoruz? => elements of desired service?
15.   Point layers önemli
16.   Corporate Citizenship Behavior
a.       Altruism/ Consciesousness/ Civic Virtue/ Courtesy/ Sportsmanship => When they’re in gamification whole level.

SKILLS
CORE
UNIQUE
FEATURE
in-role


V
Citizenship
X



X: Because a good corparate citizen tasks part of its collaborative activity
Y: in Role + Future => gamification workplace

1.       Participating in involved responsibility doing better or promoting better standards…



2.       Playbor: PLAY/ LABOR

a.       Disneyland hotel laundry crews (leaderboard => “electronic whip”)
b.      RYPPLE: implify behavior
                                                              i.      Coaching peer, recognize good jobs, feed-backing people …)
c.       Design a great experience by finding intrinsicly motivating
                                                              i.      Recognition of work
                                                            ii.      Data & behavior
d.      Dropbox etc. game design (doesn’t work, endorsing with Money)
e.      Create a meaningful badge in corporate culture
f.        Traditional companies
Gamification for Good:
-          Motivational tool to encourage people, motivate them.
-          How to gamification can be applied in Social Good? (intrinsic)
o   İnherent relatedness
o   Reward for doing good?
§  Try to avoid them.
o   Behavior change

Social Good Applications
Ex:
-           Zamzee : Uses gamelike sys. For health patients)
-          Superbetter : Health goals, achievements
For positive behavior change

·         Energy & Environment (opower.com) => communities energy savings
·         Recycle Bank => earn points => Redeem => Rewards
·         The Multiplayer Classroom (designing coursework as a game) Grading system with quest, challenges …
·         Government: Taxing/ Workers/ Applying citizens/ promote policy
o   Games for grand challenges (Office, science, technology policy… )

Social Impact Techniques
-          Feedback & Rewards
-          Monitoring
-          Communal pressure
-          Competition
-          Impact
-          Chance
Examples:
·         Stanfordcapri.org
o   CAPRI : congrestion & parking relief incentives
·         Kukui cup: youtube (Hawai university) => üniversite de daha az enerji harcamak ve de yarışarak ödül kazanmak.
·         Practicallygreen.com => şirket olarak verimliliği arttırmak.

Sustainable Behavior Change
-          Habit Formation:
o   Fogg Behavior Model
Metin Kutusu: High Motivation    
Motivation
 

Low Motivation 
B = mat (@ the same moment)
Metin Kutusu: Hard to do   Ability   Easy to do
Triggers succeed there
 

·         Triggers: push us to activity
Triggers is most effective where motivation is high & the task is perceived as somewhat difficult.
-          Motivation & ability trade-off
-          Trigger timing
-          Trigger types:
o   Spark (yetenek var motivasyon gerek)
o   Facilitator (yetenek az, motivasyon var) => kolaylaştırıcı çözümler
o   Signal (ikisi de var) bi sinyal ile aktive etmek gerek
·         Engagement loops => “Motivation”
·         Progression loops => “Perceived Ability”
·         Good Games trigger effectively

Engagement loops: aksiyonun derecesine göre feedback artar.

Progression loops:
Business Ownership, New Career


·         Practicallygreen.com /Suzan:
o   Community: creating, interacting them is vital thing
o   Feed-back: level-up, new title, mastery
·         Puanlarda deneyim kullanıcı için daha değerli olmak
o   PBL insanlarda stickness sağlayıp, ürünü kullanmayı arttıran ve de deneyimini köpürten bir araçtır.
·         “Gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement” (Kathy Sierra)
·         Implications
o   Names are powerful
·         Gamification’ın uygulanmasında çok dikkat edilmeli ve de aşırı kullanım ve dikkat çekiciliği uzun vadede zarar verebileceğinden uzak durulmalıdır.
·         Gamification proposes to replace real incentives with fictional ones.
·         İçeriği ve gamification sistemini oluştururken insanların geliş motivasyonları unutulmadan oluşturulması gerekiyor.

-          San Fransisco Köprüsü => 6.00 pm => $6  // 7.00 pm => $4
o   Tehlikeli olabilir (iyi dizayn edilmezse)
o   Cheating
-          Transparency is important in marketing & workforce usage
-          Intellectual property => virtual goods
o   Gift cards (What happens after expiration?)
o   The CARD act


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