Renewable Energy Sources for Sustainable Life

Topic: Renewable Energy Sources for Sustainable Future
Thesis: Hydroelectric energy, wind energy and solar energy are renewable resources which have contributions on sustainable future.
TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Information
1.2 Purpose of the Report
1.3 Statement of the Problem

2. METHODOLOGY
3. FINDINGS
3.1 Hydro Energy

3.1.1.1 Relatively cheap energy source
    
3.1.1.2 New technology provides increasement in suppy of electricty and allow the dam to pay for itself.
   
     3.1.2.2 Hydropower have protective production process rather than     
other methods.
3.2 Wind Energy

3.2.1.1 The wind tribunes is covering smaller space, so that provides saving on investments.

3.2.1.2 The wind tribunes have low operating costs.

3.2.2.1 It has minimal impact on the environment.
3.3 Solar Energy

3.3.1.1 It gives cost saving as an alternative for residential buildings.

3.3.2.1 Solar Energy has the lowest environmental impact.
    
4. SUMMARY

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

6. APPENDIX

ABSTRACT

The world is showing us the jeopardy of our contemptious behaviours. World is encumbered with our mess. The balance in ecology has been changed. The scientists assumed that there will be moderate amount of increasement in sea levels. By 2100, the sea level will be increase between 15 to 95 cm. According to this survey, some island nations and some of the territories will be submerged.
On the other hand, population is increasing, so our consumption of food and water is increasing too. However, according to some surveys, world’s qualified water density is decreasing every year. Also, if we compare the most cultivated terrains with their previous feritilizations, we’ll see twenty percent reduction of plantation in 30 years. So, our world is going to diminish because of our greedy actions. In the light of this information, it can be assumed that human being have to take steps forward to renewable energy. Renewable sources is our sole option for sustainable future. As Gandhi expressed " World have the resources to meet the needs of the people, but it doesn't have enough resources for their ambitions."

1.1 Background Information

Energy is the aort-vein of our lives. We are using light bulbs, communicating whenever we want, transporting by vehicles, cooking our plates... All forms of energy gives high life standard to human being. In this perspective, our lives are deprived of all kind of energy sources. If we look at our routine actions, we see our destituteness. Our social and economic wealth is derived from the energy.
Recent studies shows that, clean water, food and energy sources are the most surveyed topics. The reason of this popularity is simple; demographic change and pollution.(Hakan Özyıldız, Habertürk-nükleer enerjinin geleceği) Nuclear energy, coal, oil, and natural gas are the dominant energy sources in global economy. These sources provide significant amount of energy rather than other energy sources. However, these sources have detrimental impacts on environment. They pollute air, water and harm eco-system. Air polution makes greenhose effect and it change the climate all around the world. That causes poles to melt. Climate change has reached understimated levels of threat to the environment. Floods, droughts, and unusual climate changes are the evidences of air polution. Furthermore, when we look at nuclear energy plants, although it has vigilated protective shells to prevent any harm to environment,even its least risk causes vital damage to globe.
For that reasons we need to develop sustainable energy forms to protect the planet for future generations. On this point of view, we need renewable alternative energy sources. The sustainable development can only be established on renewable fundamental. As Karl Detlef expressed, “Nature does not need an interpreter. To understand and appreciate her beauty; a clear view of the soul-catching will enough.”
1.2 Purpose of the Report
This report is written to understand the sustainability pattern in energy. Energy is the base of our economy and life standard. We are consuming 14TW in a year of 2005. (//en.wikipedia.org/sustainable-energy) This consumption is increasing simutaneously due to the increasing population and economy. Our greedy consumption resort to sources to deplete. Moreover, we are causing the polution by providing energy on fosil fuels, nuclear, and coal. The polution is discribed by the researchs and the earth has been signal us to its encumbered stance of ecology with disasters around the world. This report’s purpose is to show the most profitable renewables’ benefits to our lives, and meanwhile, help to promote improved understanding of the potential of the renewable energy.

1.3 Statement of the Problem
Sustainability means producing and consuming present resources without harming the future. Energy is the fatty whale of sustainability. Due to its corruptive impact of greengas and polution, energy causes heavy risks for the future. By 2010, cities are consuming 75% of worlds’ energy. Also, humans population is increasing. So, the energy demand is increasing too. Many firms generally supply the keystone of economy by harmful methods. Because, the energy  is the most easily produced  by these methods and these methods give more energy. However, as we have explained before they are damaging the environment. For that reasons, we have to decide a long-term plan for sustainable sources and we should resort to the green energy.


2. Methodology
This research aims to investigate the sustainability. How we develop better life standard? Due to energies harmfull affects, firsty we have to focus on energy. Especially, we have to consider green energy to construct sustainable life standard. In this perspective, we should have to apply renewable sources. So, i investigated the energy sector’s future prospects, and new technological applications and directions. I found lots of beneficial information in “Energy Technology and Directions for the Future”, “Enerji Sektöründe Geleceğe Bakış” and “Enerji Sektörünün Geleceği Alternatif Enerji Kaynakları ve Türkiye’nin Önündeki Fırsatlar” in that content. Secondly, i examined new methods of energy and how can we sustain the energy with renewables? I formed my body texts in the light of “Renewable Energy- Power for Sustainable Future” and “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy”. Moreover, i found various information about whole renewable content. These informations lead me to imagine the subject. There were many descriptions to scope all renewable methods. I formed my general strategy by reading these informations. I choosed the most popular and growing renewable resources to point out, that where we are right now? Then, i figured out that i need to represent the renewable methods by their advantages on both environment and economy. So, the informations at “www.wikipedia.org” , Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources 2nd Edition, Wind Energy shaped my ideas about what will i going to represent in the renewables.

3. FINDINGS
3.1 Hydro Energy
3.1.1.1 Relatively cheap energy source
The hydro power plants supply the 6 percent of the world’s energy demand. This is the most popular renewable in the world. One of the reason is its operating costs. Hydro power plants not use the fossil fuels. They operate the process by themselves. The plant’s are divided into three types. These are micro (generates <0.1MW), small (0.1 to 30MW), large (>30MW). (Alternative Energy: Wind and Water, p.368) If we compare with the fossil fuel power plants, fossils give more energy. However, fossil energy is not a renewable source and also the plant requires fossils to operate. In contrast, the hydo power plant is a renewable source. So, the hyropower is more durable and cost effective in long time period. Because it is infinite where the ecology streams same.
3.1.1.2 New technology provides increasement in suppy of electricty and allow the dam to pay for itself.
On the other hand, hydro power plants produce electric so efficiently. That’s because, the plants can operate themselves. As the researchers calculated that, a three gorged dam can cover the amount of the plant’s constructing cost after 5 to 8 years of full generation. (Renewable Energy –Power for Sustainable Future) So, the dam pays for itself. This is the most important economical benefit for any investor. The investment is paying for itself. For that reason, the hydro power plants are widely use as renewables in the world.

3.1.2.1 Hydropower have protective production process rather than other methods.

In this case, i searched the most widely used renewable energy source. the Hydro energy means to generate electricity by water’s flowing and gravitational force.(wikipedia. org/wiki/Hydro_energy)The hydro power plant is only using the water’s flowing and gravitational force. It doesn’t emit any gas as fossil power plans do. The power plant constructed in middle of water streams and it uses the power of water. However, the fossil fuels use the non-renewable materials. They collect electricty by heating fossils and exhausting carbon dioxyde and other harmful gases. The researchers examined that, there is a measurement of greenhouse gas between energy sources when compared to energy sources. According to that study, hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and externality of energy source. (wikipedia. org/wiki/Hydro_energy)

3.2 Wind Energy
3.2.1.1 The wind turbines require cheaper investment budget than other methods, so that provides saving on investments.

Wind power is one of the main renewables to produce efficient electricity. The world’s total wind energy potential is 870TW.(world energy consumption is 21.283 kWh/capita in 2008). Its potential attracts many investors.(CRC Handbook of Energy Efficiency, p.1006) The new technology and manufacturing methods now provide new efficient wind plants for investors. In energy sector, investment can return in big amounts. However, many plants like Coal, Nuclear build in long term. Recent years, because of the new technological improvements many investors are taking a scope to look for windy locations. After some surveys, many investors make investment on wind rather than other energy methods. That is because the wind has lower investment cost and it require shorter construction period than others.

3.2.1.2 The wind turbines have low operating costs.
The wind turbines give good rate of return on the investment. Because, wind power plants have the lowest operating cost. For instance, wind cost is $0.0045 per kWh (in Minessota wind power plant)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermittent_energy_source). Electric power production from wind plants in World is increased from 17.800 megawatts in 2000 to  120.800 megawatts in 2008 .(Wind power, p.1008)These growth rates has been made by corresponding reduction in maintenance and operating cost.
3.2.2.1 It has minimal impact on the environment.
Air circulation occurs because of the climate difference. The wind flows across the mountains, cliffs, hills and ridges. The source of electricity is created by the world itself. The wind energy accumulates wind tribunes and the tribunes collect the renewable energy. The wind energy’s whole process is determined by renewables. The tribunes doesn’t require any other energy in the entire process. Wind energy is totally green energy source. It has no harm to nature. Wind energy is a renewable energy that is considered a clean energy because it has a minimal impact on the environment compared to other forms of energy. Wind tribunes provide electrical energy without emitting greenhouse gases. (Alternative energy:Wind and Water, p.365)

3.3 Solar Energy
3.3.1.1 It gives cost saving as an alternative for residential buildings.

According to researchers, the sun’s light which comes to earth in one year has 50 times greater potential than all coal reserves.(Renewable energy sources second edition, p.) the sun has great potential. We can collect 86.000TW electricity from sun in a year. The sun collectors are so beneficial for sunny places. The households can benefit this free resource. It provides cost effectiveness and green energy. In Israel, 80 percent of the residental building have solar heating systems. In China 50 million people use thermal pannels at their homes.(Renewable energy sources second edition, p.) Although its performance is better on sunny countries, many european countries like Germany are using thermal energy as because its percieving economic benefits. (Renewable energy sources second edition, p.) Moreover, in the United States, heating, and air conditioning systems account for 30 percent of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50 percent of the energy used in residential buildings. Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy. Furthermore, the buildings efficiency is enhanced by the construction sector and new technological improvements. These improvements lead the sector to build efficient buildings, so this opened new opportunity for alternate electricity supply by solar energy. For that reason, solar energy will be enhance due to its cost saving as an alternative for residential buildings.
                                                      

3.3.2.1 Solar Energy is infinite and exactly recurred in the natural environment.

Solar energy is converted directly from sun’s light. Solar energy can provide hot water via thermal pannels or can provide cooking heat by a concentrator mirrors or even can provide electricity and lightning by an accumulator and solar p.v. (photovoltaic) pannels. Furthermore, you can obtain the energy which is replenished in every day in the natural environment. (Renewable energy, p.11) At all methods of utilizing the solar energy, the sun provides infinite sourcing. This is the most important benefit of solar power; giving unlimited and clean energy. This is the essential form of energy ,that we need to establish to a sustainable living. According to researchers, the solar pannel utility is going to increase because of the hydrogen energy. (Renewable energy, p.227)  The most of researchers admit that hydrogen energy will replace with fossil fuels and will be the most utilizing source. This is important for our sustainable development. According to a research, the world’s solar energy investments increased by 20 percent. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy) Recent years, many politicians, govenments and companies showed their intent. They bend on the sustainable development, and they are knowing that can only be with renewable energy sources. With an outstanding infinite source.


4. SUMMARY

Energy is the fundamental element of global economy and social life. However, our harmful methods of supplyin energy lead to deadly damage to the earth. The world’s population and economy is growing substantially. These demands must be met in a manner of sustainability in order to maintain necessary supplies. At this pace of sustainability, renewable energy sources are immense. Hydro, solar and wind energy methods are the most being used renewables as their economic and environmental profits. So, it is essential to understand renewables benefits to our lives and to the environment.






















6. BIBLIOGRAPHY


  1. Internet:

Wikipedia: //en.wikipedia.org/:renewable-energy
sustainable-energy
wind energy
biofuel; biodiesel, E85
biomass
biogas
tidal-power
geothermal power
  1. Books:

Enerji Sektöründe Geleceğe Bakış
Renewable Energy- Power for Sustainable Future
Energy Technology and Directions for the Future
Energy Efficiency
Renewable Energy Sources 2nd Edition
Enerji Sektörünün Geleceği, Alternatif Enerji Kaynakları ve Türkiye’nin Önündeki Fırsatlar
Handbook: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy








7. APPENDIX
Figures and charts:
2004_Worldwide_Energy_Sources_graph
Available_RenewableEnergy
RenewableEnergy08
World_Energy_consumption
WorldWindPower

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